Study Abroad Finland.
education is provided in two types of institutions: polytechnics (AMK/YH)
and universities. Polytechncis are more practically-oriented, training professionals
for expert posts, while universities carry out research and provide education
based on it. There are 20 universities in Finland: 10 multidisciplinary
universities, three universities of technology, three schools of economics
and business administration and four art academies. All universities are
State-owned. Lower academic degrees (usually called kandidaatti) require
120 credits and can usually be completed in three years; higher academic
degrees (usually called maisteri) require 160-180 credits, meaning five
years of full-time study. Universities also confer postgraduate degrees
(lisensiatti/licenciat) and doctorates (tohtori/doktor). In the 1990s, the
university degree system was revised to develop a two-stage system in nearly
all fields. In the old system, lower university degrees were awarded in
only a few fields of study, but in the present system they are awarded in
most fields of study. Universities select their students independently.
Competition for places is fierce and a numerus clausus applies in all fields.
The polytechnic system was introduced in the 1990s to create a non-university
sector in higher education. It is founded on a nationwide network of 29
regional polytechnics. Polytechnic degrees require 140-180 credits and usually
take 3.5 to 4.5 years to complete. The Ministry of Education confirms the
polytechnic degree programmes but the polytechnics make decisions concerning
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